By Shayne Cox Gad; Christopher P Chengelis
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Extra resources for Acute toxicology testing
Cumulative irritation, a reversible dermal response which results from repeated exposure to a substance (each individual exposure is not capable of causing acute primary irritation). This is beyond the scope of acute toxicology and will not be discussed in this book. Photochemically induced irritation, which is a primary irritation resulting from light-induced molecular changes in the chemical to which the skin has been exposed. This is discussed in Chapter 6. Though most regulations and common practice characterize an irritation that persists 14 days past the end of exposure as other than reversible, the second endpoint of concern with dermal exposureJcorrosion per se--is assessed in separate test designs.
1988). Cellular responses of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes as models of toxicity to human skin. In Progress in in Vitro Toxicology (A. M. ), pp. 23-37. Liebert, New York. , and Lippold, B. H. (1982). Dermal and Transdermal Absorption. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart. Bronough, R. , and Maibach, H. I. (1985). Percutaneous Absorption. Dekker, New York. Choman, B. R. (1963). Determination of the response of skin to chemical agents by an in vitro procedure. J. Invest. Dermatol.
The sex of the test animals can also alter study results, as both regional skin thickness and surface blood flow vary between males and females. H. Finally, the single most important (yet also most frequently overlooked) factor which influences the results and outcome of these (and, in fact, most) acute studies is the training of the staff. In determining how test materials are prepared and applied and in how results are "read" against a subjective scale, both accuracy and precision are extremely dependent on the technicians involved.
Acute toxicology testing by Shayne Cox Gad; Christopher P Chengelis