By Alexander P. Demchenko
The key part of any fluorescence sensing or imaging know-how is the fluorescence reporter, which transforms the knowledge on molecular interactions and dynamics into measurable indications of fluorescence emission. This booklet, written through a crew of frontline researchers, demonstrates the vast box of functions of fluorescence newshounds, ranging from nanoscopic houses of fabrics, comparable to self-assembled skinny motion pictures, polymers and ionic beverages, via organic macromolecules and additional to residing mobile, tissue and physique imaging. simple details on acquiring and studying experimental facts is gifted and up to date growth in those essentially very important components is highlighted. The ebook is addressed to a extensive interdisciplinary audience.
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Additional info for Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III: Applications in Sensing and Imaging
They possess the three-blade propeller-like phenyl rings joined by the central carbon atom. Their lifetimes tF depend strongly on the solvent viscosity and, due to the absence of groups forming specific noncovalent bonds, they practically do not depend on other solvent properties. Depending on viscosity, tF may change by as much as four orders of magnitude. A class of organic dyes called molecular rotors responds to viscosity due to control by solvent dynamics of excited-state twisting . In addition to segmental diffusion, their response can be due to formation of twisted intramolecular charge Interfacial Behavior of Fluorescent Dyes 21 transfer (TICT) states.
Location of dye at liquid–solid interface can be determined by application of quenchers dissolved in liquid phase. Very popular in this respect is the determination of Trp residues on protein surface by quenching effect of heavy ions (cesium and iodine) . Nitroxide compounds are dissolved in different media and can quench fluorescence with the rate that approach their diffusional limit . For determining the depth of location of fluorescent probes in the membranes, the method based on quenching by spinlabeled lipids was developed [131, 132].
The problem here is that the high and wavelength-selective temporal resolution is Interfacial Behavior of Fluorescent Dyes 27 needed in the conditions when the dielectric relaxation rates match the measured time scale of fluorescence lifetimes. For low-viscosity liquids relaxing on a scale of several picoseconds, this scale is inconvenient for routine measurements. However, these methods can be efficiently used in highly viscous media (in which the relaxations are nanosecond or longer) and allow characterizing nanoscale systems, such as biomembranes and protein molecules .
Advanced Fluorescence Reporters in Chemistry and Biology III: Applications in Sensing and Imaging by Alexander P. Demchenko