Download e-book for iPad: Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture by Christopher J Barrow

By Christopher J Barrow

ISBN-10: 1853834963

ISBN-13: 9781853834967

An creation to runoff agriculture - a kind of agricultural irrigation - this article describes how using floor and subsurface water, frequently missed and wasted, allows either small farmers and advertisement agriculturists to enhance yields and the safety of harvest, even in harsh and distant environments. The textual content introduces the strategies and techniques, in addition to the demanding situations and the potential for the the most important strategy, that could give a contribution rather a lot to decreasing land degradation and enhancing conservation and sustainability.

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Additional resources for Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture

Example text

Rain-fed farming can be upgraded through irrigation or the application of chemical fertilizers but these require investment and are difficult to support in remote and rugged areas — it is in precisely these areas where SWC has potential. As the availability of water supplies becomes more difficult and costs increase, and as population in marginal steeplands and drylands grows (in Java alone there are over 91 million smallfarmers in upland areas), runoff agriculture will become an increasingly attractive alternative, or even the only practical approach to feeding and employing people and providing fuelwood (National Academy of Sciences, 1974).

Cover title : Alternative Irrigation : The Promise of Runoff Agriculture author : Barrow, Christopher J. publisher : Earthscan Ltd. isbn10 | asin : 1853834963 print isbn13 : 9781853834967 ebook isbn13 : 9780585376769 language : English subject Runoff irrigation. 587 subject : Runoff irrigation. uk Earthscan is an editorially independent subsidiary of Kogan Page Limited and publishes in association with WWF-UK and the International Institute for Environment and Development This book is printed on 50 per cent recycled paper Page v CONTENTS List of Figures, Boxes and Tables ixList of Photographs xiList of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiiiPreface xvAcknowledgements xvii 1 Introduction 1Runoff Agriculture and Land Husbandry 5Runoff Agriculture: Definition and Character 7 2 Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) 12Soil and Water Conservation in Practice 21Soil and Water Conservation Techniques 22Soil and water conservation by agronomic techniques 23Soil and water conservation by mechanical techniques 31Soil and water conservation by vegetative techniques 44Labour Input and Costs of Soil and Water Conservation 46The Role of Women in Soil and Water Conservation 48 3 Runoff Harvesting and Storage 49Runoff Harvesting Techniques 54Roaded catchments 55Enhanced catchments 55Microcatchments 57Macrocatchments 60Liman systems 61Terraced wadi systems 65Warping 65Hillside conduit systems 66Fog and Mist Harvesting 66Dew Harvesting 67Subsurface Runoff Harvesting 68Runoff Harvesting in Practice 70Runoff Harvesting Costs 73 Page vi 4 Ephemeral and Variable Streamflow: Spate, Wetlands and Flood Agriculture 74Spate Agriculture 75Storage of Floodwater and Heavy Runoff 79Wetlands, Swamp and Flood Agriculture 82Dambos 84Fadamas 84Bolis 84Wet Field, Drained Field and Raised Field or Raised Bed Agriculture 85River Flood Agriculture 87Flood-Tolerant Rice and Floating Rice 89Aquatic Crops 89 5 Indigenous Runoff Agriculture: Challenges and Breakdown 91Why Does Breakdown Occur?

If small-scale agriculturalists are to support SWC it must be affordable and they need to see significant and reasonably immediate benefits; soil conservation and sustainable development are important goals, but probably do not appeal to poor farmers (although land degradation is ultimately likely to cause marked declines in production and livelihood). Authorities often stress those goals, though it is better to emphasise and seek realistic, farmer-attractive agricultural improvement benefits (increased agricultural production; improved harvest security; reduced input of labour against returns; opportunities to diversify) (Critchley et al, 1992).

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Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture by Christopher J Barrow

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