By J. J. C. Smart, J. J. Haldane
The difficulty of even if there's a God is among the oldest and most generally disputed philosophical questions. it's a debate that spreads a ways around the variety of philosophical questions about the prestige of technological know-how, the character of brain, the nature of fine and evil, the epistemology of expertise and testimony, and so forth. during this booklet philosophers, every one devoted to unambiguous types of trust and disbelief, debate the important problems with atheism and theism.Smart opens the talk through arguing that theism is philosophically untenable and seeks to give an explanation for metaphysical fact within the mild of overall technological know-how. Haldane keeps the dialogue through maintaining that the lifestyles of the realm, and the potential of our coming to have wisdom of it, rely on the life of a developing, maintaining, own God. this can be through replies, the place each one thinker has the opportunity to reply and to protect his place. This moment variation includes new essays by way of each one thinker, responding to criticisms and construction on their earlier work.
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Additional resources for Atheism and Theism (2nd Edition)
Nevertheless the paradox is pragmatic only, and logic does not rule out the empty universe, except for a technicality. In classical ﬁrst order logic the valid schemata are deﬁned as those that come out true in any non-empty universe. 56 Given that the null universe would be the simplest possible, is it not a matter for great awe that there is anything at all, let alone our vast and complex universe? Despite the fact that I am repelled by Heidegger’s style of philosophical writing, there is nevertheless one respect in which I have a sneaking fellow feeling with him.
After all, a null universe is the simplest hypothesis. Of course there is a pragmatic paradox in so far as we assert or even entertain the null hypothesis. We must exist in order to assert or entertain the hypothesis and the proposition that the universe is null has to exist in order to be asserted or entertained. Nevertheless the paradox is pragmatic only, and logic does not rule out the empty universe, except for a technicality. In classical ﬁrst order logic the valid schemata are deﬁned as those that come out true in any non-empty universe.
Not only is the ontological argument invalid, but if its contention that there is a logical contradiction in denying the existence of God were true then the assertion of the existence of God would be trivial. Thus ‘p ν not-p’ tells us nothing about the world and ‘(∃x)Fx ν ~(∃x)Fx’ only that something exists, which we know already. The Cosmological Argument We need some suitable sense of ‘necessary’ other than that of logical necessity, and we need a meaty premiss. The premiss of the argument from the contingency of the world (often called the cosmological argument) is that something exists and that it might not have existed.
Atheism and Theism (2nd Edition) by J. J. C. Smart, J. J. Haldane