By T. A. H. Peacocke
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Extra resources for Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry. Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom
With a little practice it is possible to stop at the appropriate colour change. The changes are most striking and quickly demonstrated. (ii) Dissolve 2 g of potassium or sodium dichromate in 50 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Pour the solution into a 250 ml flat-bottomed flask fitted with a two-holed cork and bent delivery tube arranged to dip beneath the surface of water in a beaker. In the other hole insert a bent glass tube which goes to the bottom of the flask (Fig. 2). Add about 20 g of granulated zinc to the flask and quickly replace the cork, allowing the hydrogen to bubble away beneath the surface of the water.
3 . 1 ) . He was examining pollen grains suspended in water with the newly invented achromatic microscope and he noticed that the grains had a small but continuous and erratic movement. He was quite unable to account for this and no explanation was produced until Wiener in 1 8 6 1 suggested that it might be due to constant bombardment by the molecules of the water. Here was the first piece of direct evidence for the actual existence of molecules, but very little attention was paid to it at the time.
Positive ions are formed more easily with increasing atomic volume whereas the converse is true for the formation of negative ions. A glance at the atomic volume curve (Fig. 1 on page 19) will show the truth of this statement. In general the tendency to form ions increases with descent of a periodic group. The maximum positive charge on any ion is four and is shown by Sn"^"^ and Pb"^^, whereas the maximum negative charge on a simple ion is two as in S^". Iodine, which normaUy forms a negative ion, can form positive ions as in iodine monochloride.
Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry. Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom by T. A. H. Peacocke